When a scar is a skin area, can be seen on the still, that she was once wounded. Basically, normal and abnormal scars are distinguished:

Normal scar

The normal scar is a fine line on the skin surface, which develops normally 48 hours after miracle closure and faded within three months or longer again by itself.

The abnormal scar

The abnormal scar or hypertrophic scar, however, is large and thick and is excessively supplied with blood. It remains mostly dark, reddened or raised and does not fade as the normal scar on its own. In addition, they may be accompanied by troublesome symptoms such as pain, itching, and restrictions on the movement and is often perceived as a strong psychological stress because of their unsightly appearance.
What causes a scar?

Once the skin is injured by an external force, a wound forms. Now it is the task of the body, the wonders to reconnect and bring about the healing process of the affected area. A cure as it is carried out, for example, for any breach of the internal organs, is not possible in skin wounds. This can only be repaired by the body. And for these repair guides the body a series of coordinated steps exactly. First, the gap is closed by means of a blood clot again and then filled with a low-grade tissue blood again – a scar is formed.
What qualities does a scar?

A scar stands out in its appearance and its function clearly from the rest of the skin layer. At first, she is surrounded by a bright red color, later she is ideally only a narrow pale line or a small bright spot. The scar tissue has less elastic skin fibers (collagen) as normal ranges, so it can often lead to a hardening or shrinking. Sweat, sebaceous glands and fat can not be re-formed around the scar.
Surgical scars with smooth wound edges that have been sewn together very tightly, usually heal quickly and without major problems again. The result is a very fine white line that hardly is often visible.

What types of scars can be distinguished?

The scar overgrowth (The Hypertrophic Scar)

It develops due to the excessive formation of connective tissue. Often sufferers suffer from unpleasant side effects such as pain and itching, but are limited to the affected skin area. Wounds that are located during the healing process in constant motion, are most at risk, to be later turned into a scar overgrowth. Keloids do not arise immediately after the injury, but formed only a few weeks after that.

The keloids

Just like the scaring also the keloids developed from an overproduction of connective tissue. It is thick, often curved and / or very red and darker than the surrounding skin area. In addition, they often also goes beyond the original injury area and may have an irregular structure.

The scars depression (The atrophic scar)

Unlike with scaring and Narbenwülste at the scars well not too much but too little tissue is formed. Consequently, a sunken scar developed. This is located deeper in the skin surface as the surrounding region. A well-known example of the deepening scars are acne scars.

What are the causes scars?

As varied as the forms of stigma are also its causes. Probably the most discreet version is the surgical scar. However, cuts, bites, bruises and bites are the most common causes of scarring. Particularly striking and pronounced the scar when previously foreign bodies such as small particles of dirt and wood or sawdust have fallen into the wound, which caused an infection.

Even skin damage from burns or scalds can depend on the level of incineration favor the scarring.

In addition to external influences but may be responsible for the scarring also various diseases such as acne or chicken pox. But an early and consistent treatment can prevent this reliably.

Also conceivable are vaccines and cortisone injection treatments. Cortisone inhibits namely the growth of skin cells and thus stimulates the scarring considerably. Conversely, anti-inflammatory steroids in the form of ointments or injection solutions are often used but also for the treatment of interfering scar.

Not likely, but still possible is a scarring alopecia, the scalp completely destroyed the hair follicles and unsightly scars leaves.

How to treat scars?

Annoying scars must not simply accept it. Modern medicine has enough proven method for effective and sustainable scar removal:

Scar creme or scar gel

Regular topical treatment with anti-inflammatory and decongestant creams, gels or ointments usually causes a positive influence of scars. In addition, corticosteroids and vitamin A acid and creams containing estrogen are often used. However, silicone gels – and films help to make the scars appear softer and flatter.
Icing treatment
The icing therapy is recommended as a rule at keloids or hypertrophic scars. In this case liquid nitrogen is sprayed with a temperature of up to 196 degrees Celsius approximately 20 to 30 seconds to the particular scar. The excess tissue is therefore frozen. The extreme cold ensures small blisters on the scar tissue that dissolve gradually by itself. The result: The scar is smooth and flat.
Laser therapy
In laser therapy high-energy light is injected in short bursts into the skin to be treated regions. The extreme heat and rapid shock bumps penetrate deep into the ruined skin fibers and flatten the scar tissue. For best results, the laser therapy is to be repeated at regular intervals.
The dermabrasion enjoys in the treatment of scars become increasingly popular. Here, the scar is ground with either a high-speed rotating cutter or diamond grinders and leaves the upper skin layer once much smoother and finer effect.
Compression and Okkulsion
Those who opt for compression therapy, gets Durckverbände placed on the treated scars. These must be worn often for months or years. The constant pressure exerted on the scar tissue is, let be smoother and more elastic in the course of treatment.
In addition to compression therapy also Silikongelpflaster are recommended, according to the principle of Okkulsion, the sealing function. Just like the compresses should also Silikogelpflaster over months applied.